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The safe, user-friendly way to be a little drug lord: economic secrets of the dark web

We had met at a bar. I told him I was an economist. He told me he was a pot dealer. You might think we wouldn’t have had much to talk about. But the most exciting story in economics is one where an innovation disrupts a market and creates new ones. So once he said the “dark web” had totally changed his business model in just a few years, I knew he could tell me things that would really blow my mind.

The dealer, Paul (not his real name), explained how much easier it is to do business if he orders his supply over the web. In some ways, it’s safer—he can buy a wider range of cannabis, gets more consistent quality, doesn’t have to personally interact with his suppliers, and it’s quick and easy. But getting large amounts of marijuana shipped to him through the mail remains a major source of risk. To minimize it he employs a third party—a facilitator—to handle the delivery.

The facilitator rents a carefully vetted Airbnb and arranges for a naive student to be there to sign for the package. The student then takes it to a second location, often a convenience store where the facilitator has a relationship with the owner. He collects the package from there, splits it into smaller portions, and passes those on to street dealers for sale. For taking on the most risk, the facilitator gets 60% of Paul’s profits.

That 60% got my attention. After all, the market for drugs is notoriously inefficient. Street dealers, who face the most risk of violence and arrest, aren’t compensated for it. But in Paul’s model, the biggest risk-taker was the facilitator, and he was getting the biggest share of the profits, just as economic theory said he should. If what Paul told me was true, I wondered, could the dark web be creating a better functioning and more efficient drug market?

What is the dark web and how does it work?

Marketplaces for contraband have existed for only about four years on the dark web, but they’ve made inroads fast. According to the 2015 Global Drug Survey, about 10%-15% of drug users in the UK, US, and Australia have bought drugs off the net.

These sites don’t show up in search engines and can’t be visited with a regular web browser. You need special software that will obscure the site’s location on the internet (its IP address) and, generally, yours too. For many dark-web sites, that software is Tor, originally developed by the US government to protect intelligence information. And most of the sites conduct business in bitcoin, the cryptocurrency that allows for anonymous online payments.

“It was the combination of Tor and bitcoin” that sparked the sudden growth of these drug marketplaces, says Nicolas Christin of Carnegie Mellon University, an expert on the dark web. People may have previously bought or advertised drugs on non-dark websites like Craigslist, he said, but it was a tiny share of the market, with unsophisticated sellers and buyers.

Silk Road, founded by Ross Ulbricht (a.k.a. “Dread Pirate Roberts”) in February 2011, was the first site to marry Tor and bitcoin to create a bazaar of illegal goods. By the time Silk Road was shut down in October 2013, about 1,000 vendors were selling on the site. Since it shuttered, dozens of new bazaars have sprung up in its place, offering an exhilarating and terrifying array of products: prescription pills, meth, heroin, speed, crack, guns, stolen identities, gold, and erotica.

Shopping on the dark web is easy. Tor works much like a conventional web browser. You simply download it, open it, search for the name of an active market (some require a referral), choose one, create a login, and you are ready to go.

And aside from their wares, these marketplaces look remarkably similar to their counterparts on the “clearnet”, or regular internet. Users leave detailed reviews on the quality of a vendor’s product, speed of delivery, and how secure the shipping method was. There’s information on where vendors are located and where they’ll ship to. Some even post their refund and exchange policies. The websites are clean, well organized, and easy to navigate; there are icons for online support, shopping carts, and order status. The bitcoin/dollar/euro exchange rate is often featured on a banner, much like a price ticker on a finance website. Purchasing meth from a dealer in the Netherlands feels as familiar and mundane as buying sheets from Macy’s.

Christin estimates there are about 9,300 different vendors on the dark web. He and his coauthor, Kyle Soska, recently scraped data (pdf) on transactions and prices from 35 different drug bazaars between 2013 to 2015, in order to see how the market had evolved post-Silk Road.

They observed that most vendors are casual dealers, selling relatively small amounts, and spend only a few months on a site. About 70% of vendors sold less than $1,000 worth of product in the period they surveyed. Only about 2% sold more than $100,000, and just 35 kingpin vendors sold over $1 million. The top 1% accounted for 51.5% of all the transactions. Despite the variety of things on offer, cocaine, MDMA, and cannabis made up about 70% of sales; and while most listings were for cannabis-related products, an overwhelming majority of the revenue came from selling MDMA and cocaine.

Where the risk still lies

The dark web does make transactions safer. Thanks to the ratings systems, the product is more reliable and both sides are accountable. You can deal anonymously, and you don’t have to meet potentially dangerous clients or vendors in person.

All the same, of course, there are risks that Macy’s customers don’t run. Because there’s no legal protection for illegal purchases, the bitcoin payments sit in escrow until the goods have been delivered and both parties are satisfied. That exposes the seller to exchange-rate risk, because bitcoin is an extremely volatile currency.

The original Silk Road offered a crude currency-risk hedging option, but most bazaars today don’t. Vendors are reduced to swapping even cruder hedging strategies on Reddit. A moderator of the popular Reddit DarkNetMarket forum, whose handle is Theeconomist1, wrote to me, “Escrow is obviously a big risk vendors undertake. Especially on certain products with thin margins. A fluctuation can easily wipe out a profit.” There is also, Christin says, a non-trivial risk a marketplace will abruptly shut down and its operators will steal the money sitting in escrow.

Finally, of course, there is one other big source of risk: the point where the virtual world of the dark web and the world of physical reality intersect. In other words, getting drugs delivered.

That’s why Paul, the dealer I met, gives up 60% of his profits to hedge delivery risk. Another Reddit user, VIadthePutin, described an equally ornate strategy to secure a safe delivery location (called a drop address):

“A drop address needs to be created, cultivated even. A quick run through on how I pick some of my drops:

  • I pick a house with no one living in it (but not bank owned)
  • Make it look lived in, including mow the lawn, weed the garden, maybe throw a kids toy out there.
  • Stop by every day or two for at least a week, preferably two or three. You want the neighbors to have a vague notion of someone living there without being able to pick out your face.
  • Get the mail man used to mail coming here, send junk mail to this address (This is where you pick the delivery name) cheap packages, whatever. Be mindful that Amazon mails through UPS and the USPS man won’t know if you’ve had packages delivered. *I stop by every day and put the mail on the counter inside the house, waiting a few days before opening just to allow LEOs [law-enforcement officers] to jump the gun on me.”

VIadthePutin says he works in property management. That makes it feasible for him to cultivate abandoned houses as drug delivery destinations. Most buyers just have the drugs shipped to their homes (especially if it’s a small amount) or to a friend’s house or PO box. A Quartz summer intern said that at his university, different frat houses had agreements to receive each other’s drug shipments.

How the dark web could change the drug market…

As with many illegal commodities, the drug market does not function efficiently. According to UN data (and as Quartz has previously reported), huge price disparities exist across borders. Cocaine, for instance, typically costs $63 a gram in the UK and more than $130 in Sweden. There can be large disparities in price within the same country or even the same city. A wide variation in purity is one reason, but so is an ill-functioning market. If drugs were a legal commodity, those price differences would be arbitraged away through trade.

The root cause of this market inefficiency is information asymmetry. You don’t know how good an illegal drug is until you consume it, and you can’t turn to the law to enforce agreements, return a substandard product, or complain to your dealer if he tries to rob you. That prevents price discovery and risk compensation, key features of a well-functioning market.

What makes the dark web a game-changer is that it has those features. Suppliers have detailed reviews on their product, the market is competitive, and people can shop around easily. Aspiring sellers struggle to get a foothold without a history of good reviews; sometimes they offer special deals and an easy exchange policy in return for good reviews. And the markets are global, so it’s possible to see prices in other countries. All this produces a well-behaved price distribution like the one you’d find in any functional, legal market.

Well, almost. TheEconomist1 has noticed that some international pricing disparities persist, because shipping internationally is so risky. Many vendors will only ship domestically. He wrote to me:

“The most obvious example is Australia. Their customs is so good and strict, drug loss via shipping is huge. Prices are hugely divergent from the norm. It could be 5-10 times more than prices found elsewhere.”

But there is already some evidence that the dark web’s competitive market is driving down prices. The median price for cannabis today on the dark web is only $7.60 a gram in the US/Canada, which is about 45% lower than what the street price was in 2013, according to UN data. Synthetic drugs are harder to compare in price than cannabis, because of differences in purity. On the dark web vendors are likely to be more up-front about the purity of their product, because the system holds them accountable.

…but only certain parts of it

At Ulbricht’s trial, his lawyers argued the dark web made drug dealing safer. Others argued it could make the industry less violent. At the very least it could make the market more efficient. But for it to reduce most of the violence and other risks in the drug trade, the dark web would need to reach a larger market. And despite its impressive growth, both TheEconomist1 and Christin agree that probably won’t happen. Christin says the market’s exponential growth rate is starting to slow as it converges on its natural, relatively small, size.

The market is limited in the kinds of buyers it can attract. With few exceptions, it cannot serve large distributors, who do not benefit from buying or selling on the web because they have their own existing relationships, methods of quality control, and so on. Delivery of large shipments is also a problem: Christin points out that some dealers have used unwitting commercial courier services such as DHL, but, he says, “It’s very hard to ship large amounts of drugs and not get caught.” Instead, most buyers on the dark web are either consumers, who use the web as an alternative to buying on the street, or fairly small-time street dealers.

The market is also limited in the kinds of drugs it can trade effectively. Drugs like heroin and cocaine already have established distribution and production channels that the web in its current form can’t disrupt. Opium poppies and coca leaves are grown in only a few developing countries, and turning those commodities into consumable drugs, transporting them, and distributing them is the domain of large, well-organized, powerful and very profitable cartels who, so far, don’t benefit from participating in dark web markets.

But according to the Theeconomist1, “Certain drugs are prime for bulk orders for distro [distribution].” He explains that RC (LSD), alp powder (Xanax) and MDMA thrive on the web because because vendors can participate in their production, and they are easy to ship in bulk. Theeconomist1 speculates that vendors for RC and possibly alp buy the chemicals overseas (often from China), press them into pills, and then sell the final (or intermediate product) on the web.

The vendors’ role in production may be what drives the relatively high margins on these drugs. It would also explain why, according to the Global Drug Survey and Christin’s research, they are the largest share of the dark-web market. The nature of these particular drugs and their relatively tech-savvy customer base could mean their sales move from being mainly street-based to being mainly online.

For other sorts of drugs, such as pharmaceuticals, the dark web will not work as a distribution channel for dealers, Theeconomist1 explained to me:

“No way can you buy adderal, oxy, etc on the DNMs [dark net markets] and resell for a profit. Often the street price is better than the DNM price. So for these types of drugs, its going to be mostly end users on the DNMs. This is mainly due to the how these drugs have to be sourced… You have to find a break in the supply chain. Smaller DNM vendors probably buy scripts [prescriptions] off patients, using pill mills as their source. Larger, more sophisticated vendors, find a way to pinch it higher up in the supply chain. Diversion at the suppply chain level is the only way to stock huge quantities.”

Similarly, the dark web is ill-suited to drugs like heroin or meth, whose heavily addicted users usually can’t wait the relatively long times—often weeks—it takes from purchase to delivery, nor have the mental energy to deal with bitcoins.

Drugs used by students and more affluent people are a more natural fit. Quartz’s intern claimed many drugs at his university were sourced on the web. When I was in college, most students bought recreational drugs from fellow students who were both bold and industrious enough to interact with real drug dealers. But the extent of their dealing was limited to other students and not very profitable. Now that kid down the hall who deals drugs may get his supply online instead of braving the in-person market.

The future

In short, the web will probably not alter the entire market. At most it will further segment it. Certain drugs like MDMA may move mostly online. And the web may be the preferred source for affluent users and small-time pot dealers.

Prostitution went through a similar transition in the early 2000s. Most sex workers in the middle and high end of the range no longer work with pimps or madams, because they can advertise for themselves online. This increased the number of providers and lowered prices. But at the lower end (streetwalkers) and the very high end (escorts), the market still functions more or less as it has for millennia.

Still, the dark web’s present size reflects the current state of technology. New innovation normally catches on with more affluent and sophisticated users first, then trickles down as it becomes more user-friendly. It was hard to imagine the widespread use of smartphones when mobile phones were only used by Wall Street types in the 1980s. Likewise, we cannot predict how the dark web will evolve. If drones, already being used by drug dealers, become more common, it may mitigate shipping risk. Payment technology and mobile could also evolve in ways we can’t predict. In that case even your average junkie may end up using the web, and your neighbor may be running a cartel one day.

Correction: An earlier version of this piece said the price of cocaine in the UK was $63 an ounce, rather than a gram.

Online trading makes the illegal drug economy—or parts of it at least—more transparent, more predictable, and safer.

Class of 2017: The students turning to the Dark Web for their drug fix

With cheaper deals available to buy in bulk at an anonymous distance, the Dark Net is playing an increasingly major role in illegal drug sales. Now, the digital drug revolution is sweeping across UK campuses – Alec Fullerton speaks to some of the students involved

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All it took was five minutes, one quick download, an encrypted URL off Reddit and I had accessed the famous ‘Ebay for drugs’ – hidden deep in the recesses of the dark net.

Within moments I was plunged into a veritable cornucopia of contraband; every type of drug under the sun was just a click away, along with enough guns, explosives and weapons to make even Bruce Willis shudder. And I could even get a ‘McLovin’ Hawaiian driving license delivered straight to my door, probably.

Put simply, the Dark Web allows users to remain almost completely anonymous as their IP addresses are hidden and any transactions are made using the crypto currency, Bitcoins, which is, again, pretty much untraceable. Buying and selling drugs is just one of the many activities that takes place here.

Read more

Despite Silk Road’s high profile FBI bust in 2013, business is booming on the Dark Web. According to the Global Drug Survey’s 2016 report, Dark Web drug markets are continuing to grow as they enter their sixth year of trading.

In a special section of their report, ‘The dark net rising’, researchers found that globally 9.3 per cent of participants had bought drugs off the internet at some point in their life, while the percentage of Dark Web purchases taking place in the last year rose from 4.5 to 6.7 per cent.

Another 2016 report, carried out by RAND and commissioned by the Dutch government, revealed that the UK now has the highest number of online drug dealers in Europe.

It is clear that the rising popularity of the Dark Web is changing the way young people are taking drugs in this country. Far from picking up a bag of dubious-looking weed off some tracksuit-clad youth on a BMX or swapping a grubby, scrunched up tenner for a little pill shaped like Pikachu, ordering drugs off the Internet requires a fair deal more thought and planning.

Dave*, a student at the University of Lincoln, discloses how he first found out about the Dark Web drug markets: “I heard about it off a mate who’d ordered stuff before,” he tells me. “It’s not really the sort of thing I would have normally done, but I knew he seems like a fairly sensible bloke; he’s not completely off the rails, you know? So I was like, he does it and he’s fine, so it can’t be that risky.”

To an outsider, all the technical jargon associated with the Dark Web could discourage them from even trying to access it, let alone actually buying anything off it. However, due to improved storefronts and the plethora of guides on online forums, you’d be surprised at just how easy it has become.

Dave adds: “At first it was sort of difficult as I wasn’t sure how many precautions you had to take and I got really frustrated.

“Some people advise you online to ‘tumble’ your Bitcoins, use VPNs or even tails (a different Operating System), but it turns out if you’re ordering for personal amounts it really doesn’t matter. I learnt about it all from Reddit.”

For most people, the physical delivery of the substance is probably seen as the biggest risk. However, as seemingly more people have started doing drugs, and getting away with it, it’s starting to appear less of risk to nervous potential buyers.

This is something that Simon, a student at the University of Nottingham and relatively experienced Dark Web user, agrees with.

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“They usually take quite a lot of steps to hide what’s in there as well as making it look inconspicuous from the outside,” he tells me. “There was this funny one once that came hidden as a business letter and when you opened it up it was describing something ridiculous like “come visit this island resort, see the national bird and the glorious country”, in the corner there was this very small white tab sellotaped on. It’s definitely something buyers appreciate.“

Another way you, the buyer, could be caught buying drugs off the Dark Net is if it could be proved that you did just that; that you weren’t quite as anonymous as you thought you were. But Simon says he felt “more or less safe using it,” adding: “If you’re a person just buying 10 pounds worth of stuff, no one cares. When you think about it from the perspective of law enforcement, they are there to get the sellers rather than buyers.“

Another finding in the RAND 2016 report was that the Dark Net has started to play a major role in supplying ‘offline’ drug markets, as street dealers buy in bulk at cheaper prices and sell on for profit. Researchers found a quarter of the drug sales were for listings worth more than $1,000 (£768), suggesting that these purchases were intended for resale.

Dean, a student at the University of Cambridge, started dealing in his second year and supplies himself from the Dark Web.

Explaining how an A* student such as him could get started in such a thing, he says: “It was only in second year when I had a look and realised how low the prices were compared to what you were getting on the street.

“That’s how I got the idea of starting a business up. Quite large profit margins, a very easily available market- it was pretty straightforward. And yeah, I also wanted to pay off the debt I’d gotten into from my own drug use, buying off the street. I was heavily overdrawn so kind of needed to make some money and thought that’s an easy way to do it.”

Just one example quoted to me was the potential of buying ecstasy pills at £2 a pop (in bulk) and selling them on for at least £10 each to student clubbers. Despite carrying considerable risks, this is clearly a highly lucrative way for dealers to supply themselves.

Asked what sort of profit he was making as a student dealer, Dean says: “I earn between a grand to a grand and a half a term (8 weeks at Cambridge). It actually mostly comes out of occasional big money makers. There are particular events throughout the year where everyone takes drugs and there was one time when I earned one grand in one week.”

Due to the in-depth review system and the incentive to provide good quality, reliable products in a highly competitive open market, some would argue that the Dark Web even makes drug taking safer.

World’s 10 deadliest street drugs

1 /10 World’s 10 deadliest street drugs

World’s 10 deadliest street drugs

Whoonga

Whoonga is a combination of antiretroviral drugs, used to treat HIV, and various cutting agents such as detergents and poisons. The drug is widely available in South Africa due to South Africa’s high rate of HIV sufferers, and is believed to be popular due to how cheap it is when compared to prescribed antiretrovirals. The drug is highly addictive and can cause major health issues such as internal bleeding, stomach ulcers and ultimately death

World’s 10 deadliest street drugs

Scopolamine

Scopolamine is a derivative from the nightshade plant found in the Northern Indian region of South America (Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela). It is generally found in a refined powder form, but can also be found as a tea. The drug is more often used by criminals due its high toxicity level (one gram is believed to be able to kill up to 20 people) making it a strong poison. However, it is also believed that the drug is blown into the faces of unexpecting victims, later causing them to lose all sense of self-control and becoming incapable of forming memories during the time they are under the influence of the drug. This tactic has reportedly been used by gangs in Colombia where there have been reports of people using scopolamine as way to convince victims to rob their own homes

World’s 10 deadliest street drugs

Heroin

Founded in 1874 by C. R. Alder Wright, heroin is one of the world’s oldest drugs. Originally it was prescribed as a strong painkiller used to treat chronic pain and physical trauma. However in 1971 it was made illegal under the Misuse of Drugs Act. Since then it has become one of the most destructive substances in the world, tearing apart communities and destroying families. The side effects of heroin include inflammation of the gums, cold sweats, a weak immune system, muscular weakness and insomnia. It can also damage blood vessels which can later cause gangrene if left untreated

World’s 10 deadliest street drugs

Crack cocaine

Crack cocaine first came about in the 1980’s when cocaine became a widespread commodity within the drug trafficking world. Originally cocaine would have attracted a high price tag due to its rarity and difficulty to produce, but once it became more widespread the price dropped significantly. This resulted in drug dealers forming their cocaine into rock like shapes by using baking soda as a way of distilling the powder down into rock form. People were doing this because it allowed for them to sell cocaine at a lower quantity and to a higher number of people. The side effects of crack cocaine include liver, kidney and lung damage, as well as permanent damage to blood vessels, which can often lead to heart attacks, strokes, and ultimately death

World’s 10 deadliest street drugs

Crystal meth

Not just famous because of a certain Walter H White, but also because it is one of the most destructive drugs in the world. First developed in 1887, it became widely used during the Second World War when both sides would give it to their troops to keep them awake. It is also believed that the Japanese gave it to their Kamikaze pilots before their suicide missions. After the war crystal meth was prescribed as a diet aid and remained legal until the 1970s. Since then it has fallen into the hands of Mexican gangs and has become a worldwide phenomenon, spreading throughout Europe and Asia. The effects of crystal meth are devastating. In the short-term users will become sleep depraved and anxious, and in the long-term it will cause their flesh to sink, as well as brain damage and damage of the blood vessels

World’s 10 deadliest street drugs

AH-7921

AH-7921 is a synthetic opioid that was previously available to legally purchase online from vendors until it became a Class A in January 2015. The drug is believed to have 80% of the potency of morphine, and became known as the ‘legal heroin’. While there has only been one death related to AH-7921 in the UK, it is believed to be highly dangerous and capable of causing respiratory arrest and gangrene

World’s 10 deadliest street drugs

Flakka

Flakka is a stimulant with a similar chemical make-up to the amphetamine-like drug found in bath salts. While the drug was originally marketed as a legal high alternative to ecstasy, the effects are significantly different. The user will feel an elevated heart rate, enhanced emotions, and, if enough is digested, strong hallucinations. The drug can cause permanent psychological damage due to it affecting the mood regulating neurons that keep the mind’s serotonin and dopamine in check, as well as possibly causing heart failure

World’s 10 deadliest street drugs

Bath salts

Bath salts are a synthetic crystalline drug that is prevalent in the US. While they may sound harmless, they certainly aren’t the sort of salts you drop into a warm bath when having a relaxing night in, they are most similar to mephedrone, and have recently been featured throughout social media due to the ‘zombification’ of its. The name comes from the fact that the drug was originally sold online, and widely disguised as bath salts. The side effects include unusual psychiatric behaviour, psychosis, panic attacks and violent behaviour, as well as the possibility of a heart attack and an elevated body temperature

World’s 10 deadliest street drugs

Purple Drank

One of the more unusual drugs around at the moment, purple drank was popularised in 90s hip hop culture, with the likes of Jay Z and Big Moe all mentioning it in their songs. It is a concoction of soda water, sweets and cold medicine, and is drunk due to cold medicines high codeine content, which gives the user a woozy feeling. However it can also cause respiratory issues and heart failure

World’s 10 deadliest street drugs

Krokodil

Krokodil is Russia’s secret addiction. It is believed that over one million Russians are addicted to the drug. Users of krokodil are attracted to the drug due to its low price; it is sold at £20 a gram while heroin is sold for £60. However, krokodil is considered more dangerous than heroin because it is often homemade, with ingredients including painkillers, iodine, lighter fluid and industrial cleaning agents. This chemical make-up makes the drug highly dangerous and likely to cause gangrene, and eventually rotting of the flesh

Adam Winstock, Founder of the Global Drug Survey, pondered this question in a Huffington Post article: “It’s possible that products purchased on DNMs are safer to use as result of the filtering out of poor quality vendors and products. Could dark-markets help create credible on-line communities sharing harm reduction advice at point of purchase?”

Since he professes to have bought “dozens of different drugs” off the Dark Web, I question Dean about how the quality and reliability of the drugs he’d bought compared to those you buy on the street. He explains: “The quality is much, much better on the dark web. It’s incomparable really. You don’t really get dodgy pills off the dark web. I even got my drugs tested once and he could only find MDMA in them.”

With so many young people turning to Dark Web drug markets, it seems impossible that it won’t continue to grow in popularity. But a potential threat to this is the Government’s new “Snooper’s Charter” – which despite still not allowing the officials to track Dark Web activity would reveal Clear Net downloading of Tor or searching drug-related Reddit threads.

But Simon doesn’t appear concerned about this: “A real sign of growing popularity is how people are generally converging on one store – Alphabay Market,” he explains.

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“It’s got to the point now where they’ve refined the storefront and it’s got very stable. If you went on Alphabay a year ago, they’d only have 20,000 listings of whatever drugs and now they have like 200,000 listings. I think that speaks for something.”

With regards to the ‘Snooper’s Charter’, Dave says: “Well, I think it’s a bloody violation of my personal freedoms, but it’s not going to stop me buying drugs on the Internet.”

It seems likely that the popularity of Dark Web drug markets will continue to grow on UK campuses in the future, yet given the potentially improved safety and reliability of the products, many would argue this shouldn’t necessarily be seen as a bad thing.

It’s a fact that young people will decide to experiment with drug use during their university years, so arguably the primary concern must be to optimise their safety. I would argue that the economic principles behind the Dark Web drug markets do just that.

*Names have been changed for the sake of anonymity.

1 /3 Class of 2017: The students turning to the Dark Web for their drug fix

Class of 2017: The students turning to the Dark Web for their drug fix

With cheaper deals available to buy in bulk at an anonymous distance, the Dark Net is playing an increasingly major role in illegal drug sales. Now, the digital drug revolution is sweeping across UK campuses – Alec Fullerton speaks to some of the students involved

Class of 2017: The students turning to the Dark Web for their drug fix

Alphabay Market operates as an “Ebay for drugs”

Class of 2017: The students turning to the Dark Web for their drug fix

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With cheaper deals available to buy in bulk at an anonymous distance, the Dark Net is playing an increasingly major role in illegal drug sales. Now, the digital drug revolution is sweeping across UK campuses – Alec Fullerton speaks to some of the students involved ]]>